Sapphire and ruby single crystal materials are chemically inert and have zero porosity, do not outgas, and are non-thrombogenic. Since sapphire and ruby do not oxidize, they are ideal for enviroments with oxigen because there are no flash points. The materials are used in a wide range of medical applications from oxigen valves, wire feed throughs, brain shunt valves, anessthesiology gases, and precison dispense tips. These materials also have five times the abrasion resistance than carbides so orifice edges do not wear, even at high pressure and temperature.
A key flaw in orifice designs is one that changes over time. The sapphire and ruby materials keep their edge longer than most any other material. Because the material can be lapped to a super finish, parts remain smooth, clean and materials tend less to build up on it.
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